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Posted February 14, 2017: by Bill Sardi
Getting behind the curtains on the stage of modern medicine like I do, one gets the distinct impression that people are just being allowed to die on time for the benefit of life insurance companies and/or to fulfill covert population control agendas.
Modern medicine prescribes replacement thyroid, estrogen, and insulin but fails to prescribe another important hormone, leaving millions of senior Americans with a weak immune system and vulnerability to infection and cancer. The only proposed remedies are stem cell injections or organ transplants that are expensive and impractical since replacement of this hormone would be universal among adults over age 60.
Due to the age-related decline in the immune system, infectious disease remains among the top 5-10 causes of mortality and morbidity in the elderly. Therefore, successful efforts to improve immunity remain an important aspect of healthspan extension. [Aging Cell 2015]
It is tempting to assert covert end-of-life population control is underway. In human trials, humans accidentally exposed to cancer-causing chemicals who received immunotherapy were nearly 60% less likely to develop cancer. [Cancer Survey 1992]
The inability of aged adults to restore immune function following insult by cancer chemotherapy, infection and inadvertent radiation exposure or radiation therapy leads to increased morbidity and mortality. [Current Opinion Immunology 2013]
“Very few people realize that the process of aging correlates with a decreased ability of the immune system to generate responses to incoming pathogens and vaccines. This age- related decline in immunity is referred to as ‘immune-aging’ or ‘immunosenescence’.” [Advances Clinical Experimental Medicine 2016]
Age is the main driver of cancer. Cancer among adults 65+ is 11 times more common with 15 times greater mortality compared to younger adults. [Immunity & Ageing June 2009]
Approximately half of the increase in the world’s population by 2050 may be accounted for by the prolonged survival of people over 60 years of age. One of the central drivers of aging and death is the age-linked atrophy (shrinkage) of the thymus gland. [Journal Comparative Pathology 2010]
A report published in 2015 quoted German physicist and philosopher Carl von Weizsacker who said: “I see no physical reason why it should not have been possible for life to construct ageless individuals.” The report went on to say the age-related decline of thymus gland hormone secretion has been posed as a biological clock. [Biochemistry 2015]
“The thymus gland is an essential organ for the development of the immune system but very few people have any idea it exists. The thymus gland controls and harmonizes the entire immune system.” [Advances Clinical Experimental Medicine 2016]
We don’t die of pneumonia, heart failure, infectious or autoimmune diseases, we die of thymus gland collapse. No one tells us.
You are not going to live any longer than your thymus gland.
The domino hypothesis that the onset of age-related immune decline is a consequence of a cascade of events that begins with shrinkage of the thymus gland. [Biogerontology 2000]
Babies born without a thymus gland rapidly succumb to infection if a thymus gland transplant is not performed.
In advanced countries where human populations are living longer, people will face the greatest health challenges of their life with a decimated thymus gland.
With advancing age the progressive shrinkage (involution) of this gland will ultimately lead to the demise of all human beings if nothing else does.
However, newly published science points to ways to regenerate the thymus gland and reverse thymic aging. There is promise of a new era of healthy aging if only this newly appreciated science can be put into practice.
The word “thymus” is derived from the Greek word thumos which means “soul.” It was the Greek physician Galen (129-216 AD) who first noted the thymus gland shrinks with advancing age. [Immunology 2007]
Almost complete atrophy (shrinkage) of the thymus gland occurs by age 50. [Ageing Research Reviews 2011]
Higher thymus gland function is associated with a younger immune system while thymus gland decline is associated with all-cause mortality. [Spanish Review Geriatric Gerontology 2013]
In 1961 the field of medicine mistakenly believed the thymus gland played no role in immunity. [Advances Clinical Experimental Medicine 2016]
Today it is known that the primary immune response against pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi as well as tumor cells is T-memory cells. (T stands for thymus.) [Experimental Gerontology 2014]
A prominent feature of immunosenescence is thymus gland shrinkage (involution), which leads to a decrease in the generation of new T-cells and a decline in virgin (naïve) T-cells that have not made antibodies against any foreign threat yet and are primed to make antibodies against new biological threats. [Immunity & Ageing June 2009]
Newly activated T-cells have not developed a memory yet, that is, have not produced specific antibodies from exposure to antigens such as bacteria, viruses and fungi. These are called naïve T-cells. Without a fresh supply of naïve T-cells throughout life the body can’t defend (develop antibodies) against new biological threats. It is your thymus gland that produces most new naïve-T-cells.
Naïve T-cells exit the thymus gland and stay in circulation to patrol lymph nodes and the spleen for potential pathogenic (disease creating) non-self entities.
There is a need for continual production of naïve T-cells to mount an effective immune response against bacterial, viral and fungal infections. [Frontiers Immunology 2013]
The thymus gland lasts about 40-50 years with average lifespan now approaching twice that at ~80 years, leaving the senior adult population vulnerable to infection, autoimmune diseases and cancer. [Current Opinion Immunology 2013]
The thymus gland is located just behind your sternum bone below your neck. The active young double-lobed thymus is about 5 centimeters long (2 inches), 4 cm (1.5 inches) wide, and just 6 mm (1-quarter inch) thick. A 90-year old thymus gland will be 1/10th of its size compared to childhood. It is about the size of a walnut in youth and about the size of a pea in old age.
The thymus gland shrinks at the rate of ~3% per year in middle age (35-45 years) and ~1% per year throughout the rest of life. [Annals Diagnostic Pathology 2004]
The extrapolated rate of loss of thymus tissue suggests the complete loss of thymus tissue should result after 120 years, the theoretical lifespan limit posed by many researchers. [In Vivo 1997]
It has been said: that “of all the changes of the ageing immune system, regression (shrinkage) of the thymus gland is the most dramatic, ubiquitous and recognizable process, having been first recognized 70 years ago, however still little is known about mechanisms that contribute to this event.” [Aging & Disease 2011] That statement was made five years ago and recent scientific discoveries now reveal how to regenerate the thymus gland.
A recently published report said: “Medical science seems to be on the threshold of a revolution. It seems possible that in twenty years doctors will be able to replace organs in the human body like parts in a car.” A group of researchers tried to regenerate the thymus gland in mice. With advancing age this gland is gradually replaced by fatty tissue and disappears. [Advances Clinical Experimental Medicine 2016]
The modern impetus has been to transplant thymus cells by stem cell therapy. [Thymistem] Stem cell transplants of neonatal origin are being contemplated. [Immunology Review 2016] Of course, this approach is impractical and unaffordable to the many millions who face old age. The cost of stem cell transplants for the masses would overwhelm health insurance pools.
Modern medicine is over reliant on vaccines to protect the elderly against infectious disease. Not only does vaccination in the aged often result in inadequate generation of antibodies against a particular bacterium or virus, in older age vaccination often does not adequately generate competent memory by T-cells so the effect of vaccination is not lasting. This is the primary reason why vaccines are not providing life-long immunity. This is why adjuvants (like heavy metals mercury (thimerosal) and aluminum that stimulate the immune response) must accompany vaccines. [Indian Journal Medical Research 2013]
Decreased antibody production and shortened immunological memory resulting in vanishing immunity after vaccination is due to the atrophy of the thymus gland. [Biologicals 1997]
“There are remarkable parallels between immunological changes during aging and zinc deficiency… which includes reduction in the activity of the thymus gland and a shift in T-helper cells which results in decreased response to vaccination and impaired functions of innate immune cells.”
Oral zinc supplementation stimulates thymus growth and thymus gland hormone (thymulin) levels, which suggests the age related decline in thymus function may be due to zinc deficiency. This condition may be partially if not fully corrected by zinc supplementation. [Clinical Immunology Immunopathology 1993]
While most studies do not confirm widespread decline in zinc levels in aged adults, even marginal zinc deprivation can impair immunity. Oral zinc supplementation demonstrates the potential to improve immunity and efficiently control inflammation among senior adults.
Most studies confirm a decline in zinc blood levels with advancing age but most do not classify the majority of elderly as zinc deficient. However, even marginal zinc deprivation can affect immune function. Oral zinc supplementation has the potential to improve immunity in the young and old. [Immunology Aging 2009]
Zinc deficiency may impair the ability of white blood cells known as macrophages from engulfing (digesting) germs or cancer cells and impairs the ability of neutrophils to chase down (called chemotaxis) and generate a free-radical burst that kills pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi as well as cancer cells.
The most prominent effect of zinc deficiency is a decline in T-cell function. Thymulin, a hormone secreted by the thymus gland, requires zinc. Zinc supplementation leads to T-cell activation. [Immunity & Ageing June 2009]
Older adults consume smaller amounts of food that can result in a shortage of trace minerals that are in short supply in the first place. Decreased intestinal absorption and drugs like diuretics and lisinopril that interfere with zinc absorption and utilization also pose a problem. [Immunity & Ageing June 2009]
The Recommended Daily Allowance for zinc in individuals 19 years and older is 11 milligrams per day for men, 8 milligrams/day for women with no special recommendations for senior adults. [Immunity & Ageing June 2009]
Only a fraction of dietary (~10 mg from food) or supplemental zinc actually is absorbed, maybe as little as 17% for older men. [Journal Nutrition 2000] Zinc absorption declines with advancing age if for no other reason than a decline in the secretion of stomach acid that ironically is dependent upon zinc. Vitamin B6 may improve zinc absorption. [US Dept. Agriculture]
Of special note, the consumption of supplemental iron and calcium in prenatal dietary supplement formulas during pregnancy interferes with zinc absorption that could result in developmental problems such as pyroluria with its many behavioral and medical manifestations, and dyslexia in offspring who then have difficulty reading. [Lancet 2004; British Medical Journal 1988; Dr. Kaslow.com]
Zinc deficient adults typically experience greater frequency of respiratory infections, gastrointestinal diseases, mental depression and congestive heart failure. [Immunity & Ageing June 2009]
For those individuals who have an over-activate immune system (autoimmunity) and may be concerned about zinc causing an over-responsive immune response, zinc does not promote an immune response but rather normalizes immunity. A shortage of zinc impairs control over inflammatory agents (cytokines, such as interleukin-6), which can be corrected by zinc supplementation. [Immunity & Ageing June 2009] In other words, zinc is a remedy for the many autoimmune disorders (rheumatoid arthritis, type I diabetes, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, lupus, Grave’s disease, Myasthenia gravis, fibromyalgia, celiac). A full list of the many autoimmune disorders can be viewed online. [American Autoimmune]
Patients given two essential trace minerals, zinc and selenium, showed higher antibody response after vaccination.
Use of zinc supplements should be encouraged for prophylaxis among adults and children who have no clinical symptoms. [Immunity & Ageing June 2009]
Remarkably, zinc supplied to old mice facilitated a complete recovery of thymus gland function and regrowth of the organ with greater immune efficiency. Researchers conclude that age-related thymus gland shrinkage and immune system dysfunction are not intrinsic and irreversible and largely depend upon zinc adequacy. [International Journal Immunopharmacology 1995]
Zinc supplementation has been positively demonstrated to increase thymus gland volume (by 65%) in laboratory animals using modern imaging technology. [Biomedical Pharmacotherapy 1998]
In a human study published over three decades ago, mega-dose zinc administered to subjects over 70 years of age increased the number of T-cells and improved antibody response to vaccination. [American Journal Medicine 1981]
Zinc deficiency is often marginal and may or may not produce overt symptoms. In one study zinc fortification of food did not raise blood levels of zinc but did positively affect the immune response. Of considerable interest, a group of very old adults whose diet was fortified with zinc were observed for 1 year and compared with a group whose diet was not zinc fortified. Ten percent (10%) of the zinc fortified group died during that period compared to 52% in the non-fortified group. Only 10% of the zinc-fortified group was hospitalized for infections versus 22% in the non-fortified group. [Age 2014] Modern medicine is letting people die prematurely for the want of a simple trace mineral.
The human body contains 2-3 grams (2000-3000 milligrams) of zinc, which is bound to proteins for transport and release. Zinc is transported via the blood plasma that represents less than 1 percent of the total body content. The human body has limited zinc stores that are easily depleted. In state of infection and/or chronic inflammation zinc is sequestered (bound) to proteins, thus inducing a state of deficiency or more accurately, lack of bioavailability. For this reason, zinc blood tests may not reflect zinc the true state of zinc nutriture.
The major family of proteins that bind to zinc are called metallothioneins. Zinc deficiency in the elderly may impair zinc-dependent cell signaling and thereby immune function. Because of this binding to metallothioneins, a zinc/blood plasma level in the normally occurring range (70-110 micrograms per deciliter) may not adequately reflect the bioavailability of zinc.
Most aged individuals exhibit low-grade sustained inflammation as evidenced by various markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha) that is called “inflammaging.” [Oncotarget 2015]
Chronic oxidation and resultant inflammation may lead to binding of zinc to metallothioneins. [Mechanisms Ageing Development 2002]
An inflammatory factor (interleukin-6) provokes low zinc bioavailability via metallothionein binding. [Immunity & Ageing 2004]
Binding of zinc to metallothioneins may be one of the causes of reduced thymus gland efficiency in old age. Zinc supplementation may be useful to improve immune responses in old age. [Mechanisms Ageing Development 1998]
The trace mineral selenium facilitates the release of zinc as it is transported in the blood circulation. [Proceedings National Academy Sciences 1998]
The sleep hormone melatonin, available as a dietary supplement, inhibits metallothionein-9. [Acta Microbiology Immunology Hungary 2016] Melatonin has been shown to release zinc and restore thymus gland efficiency. [International Journal Immunopharmacology 1999] This knowledge should underscore the importance of sleep in the maintenance of immunity via release of zinc by natural melatonin secreted by the pineal gland at the base of the brain.
Historically, thymus extracts have been successfully used as anti-cancer agents as early at 1907. [Annals Surgery 1907] Thymus extract (thymosin) was reported to correct T-cell function over four decades ago. [Journal Immunology 1974] Thymosin was reported to correct autoimmune diseases in humans in 1976. [Advances Experimental Medicine Biology 1976] In 1981 it was demonstrated in aged adults (85-103 years of age) that thymosin (fraction 5) supplementation activates T-cells to function properly. [Mechanisms Ageing Development 1981]
More recently, the provision of thymosin to older adults (age 65-99 years of age) improved antibody production following vaccination for influenza. [Journal American Geriatrics Society 2015] Researchers at the National Institutes of Health say they successful use of thymosin to facilitate production of antibodies among vaccinated individuals has been demonstrated and that further studies are warranted. [Annals NY Academy Science 2007]
It cannot be said that the use of thymus gland hormones is archaic or unproven. No side effects or drug interactions have been reported with thymus gland extracts.
It’s not like thymus gland extracts are a new idea. In 1978 the use of purified thymus gland bovine (cattle) extracts were demonstrated to prolong the lifespan of laboratory mice. [American Journal Veterinary Research 1978] Again in 1982 thymus extract of fetal origin were used to increase the longevity of lab animals. [Thymus 1981] In 1985, a synthetic thymus hormone was used to restore antibody production in old mice. [Survey Immunologic Research 1985]
Thymosin, the thymus gland hormone, as obtained from calves is fully interchangeable between species (mice, humans). [Annals NY Academy Sciences 2006]
A decline in magnesium content of tissues was noted in 1975 among animals whose thymus gland had been surgically removed prior to birth, a tissue deficiency that was completely corrected by injection thymosin. [Canadian Journal Physiology Pharmacology 1975]
Thymus extracts work to eradicate tumor cells by a natural die-off process called apoptosis or programmed cell death rather than toxic chemotherapy. [Anticancer Research 2008]
A fractionated thymus factor has been shown to restore immunity to mice inoculated with tumor cells. [Cancer Research 1987] In laboratory mice whose thymus gland was surgically removed, thymus cells injected into these mice prolonged their survival. [Proceedings National Academy Science 1972]
A thymus fraction has been shown to mature stem cells. [Expert Opinion Biological Therapy 2015]
Recently researchers stated this: “On the basis of preclinical and clinical results available, the use of the chemo-immunotherapy protocol, in which the role of a thymus polypeptide is central (thymosin), is strongly recommended.” [Expert Opinion Biological Therapy 2015] This echoes statements made four decades earlier. [Cancer 1976]
Thymosin, a purified extract of thymus tissue, is considered to be a highly active fraction of thymus peptides. In a human study (Phase II) the mean survival of patients with small cell carcinoma of the lungs treated with thymosin and chemotherapy increased from 243 to 450 days. [The Journal Biological Chemistry 1979]
Thymosin (fraction 5) combined with chemotherapy prolonged the survival of patients with small-cell lung cancer. [Journal American Medical Association 1979]
However, the practice of using thymus gland extracts as co-treatment for cancer has all but faded from view and is considered archaic. Yet most cases of cancer involve a diminished immune system that is never addressed by modern cancer treatment.
A typical daily dose is 750 mg of crude thymus polypeptide fraction or 120 mg of pure thymus polypeptides (thymomodulin). [WebMD]
Over a decade ago researchers at the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences assessed the effects of thymus gland and pineal gland extracts in elderly persons over a 6-8 year period. A 2.0-2.4-fold decrease in acute respiratory infection, ischemic heart disease, high blood pressure, arthritis was achieved. Thymus gland extract decrease mortality by 2.0-2.1-fold compared to untreated subjects! [Neuro Endocrinological Letters 2003]
Humans don’t need to await a drug or stem cell transplants to rescue the aging thymus gland. In addition to zinc There are numerous nutrients that are essential for thymus gland maintenance that can be consumed. These include B vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, the sulfur compound N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), the herbal extracts piperine and resveratrol, and thymus gland extracts. Avoidance of a high saturated fat diet, reduction of iron-rich red meat and periods of fasting or blood letting, particularly in full-grown males, may also be of benefit.
A deficiency of vitamins B1 and B6 has been demonstrated to impair production of antibodies and results in a striking loss of thymic tissue in animals. [Journal Experimental Medicine 1947] The correlation between a decline in thymus function and B vitamin deficiency is almost forgotten in an era of expensive drugs.
In a decades old study, vitamin B6 deficiency was demonstrated to decrease thymus gland protein by 36%. [Vopr. Med Khimi 1988]
In another dated experiment, laboratory mice were injected with tumor cells and given low and high doses of vitamin B6 (as pyridoxine 5 phosphate). Tumor volume was lowest among mice fed the highest amount of vitamin B6. Tumor growth correlated with shrinkage of the thymus gland. High dietary intake of vitamin B6 was demonstrated to suppress tumor growth via maintenance of thymus gland function. [Journal National Cancer Institute 1987]
The age-related accumulation of iron, first in males and then later in life in females, must be involved in thymus gland atrophy because iron overload is a hallmark of aging. In fact, shrinkage of the thymus gland occurs more rapidly among those with iron disorders. [Turkish Journal Hematology 2014] This suggests iron-rich red meat should be limited. Iron-free multivitamins are in order. Iron should be obtained from the diet.
Laboratory animals whose diets were fortified with vitamin E exhibit improved thymus gland function and produce more naïve (CD4 and CD8) T-cells than non-vitamin E supplemented animals. [Journal Nutrition Science Vitaminology 1993]
In an animal laboratory experiment vitamin C was given to vitamin C deficient mice that were genetically modified so they didn’t internally produce vitamin C as most animals do. The animals were given two doses of vitamin C, equivalent to the recommended daily allowance in Japan (100 mg/day) or ten times the RDA (1000 mg/day) for a year. The blood plasma vitamin C levels of these animals were similar.
Mice given the highest amount of vitamin C had almost double the population of T cells and thymocytes (premature T-cells) compared to mice given the lower dose of vitamin C. The mice fed mega-dose vitamin C had more naïve T-cells (CD4 and CD8 T-cells that have not developed a memory to counter specific antigens yet) that are employed to fight new infections. Supplemental vitamin C also improved the population and function of immune cells released from bone marrow.
These Researchers concluded that high intake of vitamin C, beyond what the best plant food diet “contributed to sustaining immune cells and could be effective in improving immune function in elderly people.” [British Journal Nutrition 2015]
Long-term high-dose (human equivalent of 1400 mg/day) given to laboratory mice is effective in the maintenance of naïve T-cells and suppression of thymus gland atrophy. [British Journal Nutrition 2015]
Piperine, extracted from black pepper, has also been found to abrogate age-related decline in immunity and thymus gland function in laboratory mice exposed to a heavy metal (cadmium). [Environmental Toxicology Pharmacology 2009]
The thymus and pineal glands depend on insulin activity. Therefore the trace mineral chromium picolinate may also aid thymus gland function. [Medical Hypotheses 1994]
Some inroads are being made to address premature immunosenescence induced by high-fat diets. The thymus gland of laboratory mice fed a high-fat diet is engorged with fat which results in a decrease in mature T-cells. When the red wine molecule resveratrol is added to the diet of these mice many deleterious changes in the thymus gland are reversed and cellular immunity is normalized. [Journal Nutritional Biochemistry 2013]
The red wine molecule resveratrol exerts broad biological action to rescue the aging thymus gland.
The red wine molecule resveratrol, known to be a molecular mimic of calorie restriction, activates the Sirtuin1 survival gene whose activity declines with progressive atrophy of the thymus gland. [Cell Transplantation 2014]
Only recently has it been demonstrated that resveratrol increases FGF-21 activity via its regulation of the Sirtuin1 survival gene. [Gastroenterology 2014] Activation of FGF-21 is reported to maintain the thymus gland in aging mice. [Rejuvenation Research 2016]
Resveratrol has been shown to increase the number of mature T-cells (aka T-lymphocytes) in the thymus gland and elevate the number of naïve T-cells (CD4, CD8 T-cells). Resveratrol also activates the Nrf2 controller of internal antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, known to protect the thymus gland from attrition and aging. [Food & Function 2014]
Resveratrol counters the deleterious effects of diet-induced obesity upon thymus gland function and anatomy. [Journal Nutritional Biochemistry 2013]
Fortification of animal feed with resveratrol increased the weight of the thymus gland and increased the T-cell count and improved antibody production after vaccination in chickens. [American Journal Veterinary Research 2014]
It is now possible to address ways to avert obesity-related decline in immunity. The accumulation of fat in the body accelerates the attrition of thymus gland volume and function and reduces T-cell production. These negative effects can be reversed with resveratrol supplementation. [Journal Nutritional Biochemistry 2013]
A subset of T-cells called regulatory T-cells (aka TREGS) suppresses other T–cells to limit and normalize the immune response. Resveratrol prolongs the life of TREGS and helps overcome the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet. [Journal Food Science 2014]
A molecule similar to resveratrol, quercetin, has been shown to act as an antioxidant to protect the thymus gland. [Experimental Cell Research 2003] Quercetin is found in red apple peel and grapes and is available as a dietary supplement.
The human body has marvelous compensatory mechanisms to withstand exposure to mild toxins. The most prominent and well-studied mechanism is the activation of internal antioxidant enzymes (glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase) via the Nrf2 gene transcription factor. In a laboratory dish experiment, exposure to a toxic metal (arsenic) activated Nrf2 and protected the thymus gland from damage. [International Immunopharmacology 2015] The red wine molecule resveratrol activates Nrf2 and protects T-cells from potentially toxic oxidation. [Food & Function 2014]
Gut bacteria (the intestines) help to educate the immune system to decipher self versus non-self antigens. Without this education the immune system may attack beneficial bacteria. In addition to the thymus gland this T-cell education takes place in the gut bacteria. [Nature 2011] Gut bacteria can be re-balanced by consumption of fermented foods such as unsweetened pickles, sauerkraut, miso soup and use of dietary supplements such as resveratrol, garlic, eugenol from cloves, beta glucans and apple pectin. [Applied Environmental Microbiology 2015; Nutrients 2016; Scientific Reports 2015; Nutrition 2016]
It is unconscionable that modern medicine virtually ignores loss of thymus gland function and goes on treating tumors and infections and autoimmune diseases without first addressing thymus gland aging. It’s like fighting a forest fire without taking the matches away from a pyromaniac. Until recently age-related thymus gland shrinkage, called thymic involution, has not been adequately addressed in the medical literature.
Will doctors begin to prescribe animal-source glandular extracts as they already do with estrogen, thyroid and insulin? Will doctors prescribe zinc across the board for all adults over age 60?
Realistically, however, there is so much money being made treating diseases that emanate from age-related thymus gland dysfunction, adoption of regenerative medicine is not foreseeable.
In lieu of prescriptive medicine, if physicians don’t embrace the nutraceutical approaches to regenerate the thymus gland described in this report, will the public take unguided action on their own without reimbursement by insurance?
Answers to these questions will only be answered over time.
It should be noted that resveratrol addresses the genes involved in thymus gland maintenance, binds to copper thus restoring zinc/copper balance, and works synergistically with vitamin D. Resveratrol molecularly mimics a calorie-restricted diet, helps overcome the adverse effects of a high-fat diet and rescues the aging thymus gland. However, resveratrol is not appropriate for everyday use in growing children and pregnant females because it has anti-growth factors.
There are roadblocks to public adoption of thymus gland regeneration. Semi-literate individuals may have difficulty understanding this information. Only a small portion of American adults are comfortable with making healthcare decisions on their own. Many Americans already take dietary supplements like vitamin C and E and are most likely to be early adopters or already have benefited from supplementation.
We now know that thymus shrinkage is regarded as one of the leading regulators of aging, not just disease. Will humans achieve unprecedented longevity, doubling their healthspan and lifespan by putting this knowledge into practice that as has already been demonstrated in the animal laboratory and limitedly in humans? – ©2017 Bill Sardi, ResveratrolNews.com
A zinc-rich multivitamin has been formulated by this author that provides all of the thymus-gland maintenance nutrients mentioned in this report. The array of nutrients in this multivitamin includes those that promote beneficial gut bacteria that educate the immune system (T-cells) not to attack the host. [3Formulas.com]
Zinc: children over age six: 10-15 mg; adults 25-30 mg. Zinc oxide is poorly absorbed. Zinc citrate is well absorbed. [Journal Nutrition 2014] Excessively high dose zinc may induce an imbalance with copper. This author suggests no more than 30 mg supplemental zinc/day. [U.S. Dept. Agriculture 2016]
Vitamin C: 250 mg/day for children over age 6; 500 mg 2-3 times a day for adults; pregnant mothers more.
Vitamin D3: 2000-4000 IU for children and adults (equivalent to 10-15 minutes of midday sunshine
Vitamin B1 thiamin: at least 5-10 mg in multivitamin; older adults as fat-soluble benfotiamine.
Vitamin B6 as pyridoxyl phosphate (P5P): 10-25 mg
Piperine: 5 mg
N-acetyl cysteine (NAC): 500 mg
Magnesium 200-400 mg/day. Note: magnesium oxide is poorly absorbed (only 4%). Select other forms: citrate, malate, taurate, glycinate, others.
Resveratrol: no more than 250 mg
Thymus gland extracts are also available